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Breast cancer treatment has improved rapidly through the years, starting from surgery, to hormonal therapy, to targeted therapy. Despite this, tumor metastasis remains the highest cause of breast cancer—related death. The current regime to deter metastasis is through adjuvant therapy, but such therapy frequently yields undesirable side effects.
In some cases, the cancer may have already spread by the time of initial diagnosis. Other times, the cancer may spread after the initial treatment. For example, a person who has been treated for early-stage breast cancer may later be diagnosed with recurrent local or regional breast cancer or metastatic breast cancer.
Breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the US and it is estimated that 40, American women will die of the disease in Indeed, distant metastasis; the most common form of recurrence in the majority of cases ; represents the main cause of death in women with breast cancer. Improvements in screening and imaging techniques have helped in the early detection of breast cancer and this, in turn, has resulted in a greater number of patients presenting with early-stage breast cancer. In patients with early disease, a multimodal approach to treatment is essential for improving survival.
Some of the things you may be wondering about include:. The spread of breast cancer is important as it is responsible for most deaths from the disease. The bones are the most common site of metastases, followed by the lungs and liver, though spread to the brain and many more regions may occur.
It was unclear whether breast cancer subtypes are associated with the risk of site-specific metastases. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between molecular subtypes and distant metastatic sites and their prognostic significance. We identifiedpatients with invasive breast cancer from to using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database.
The aim of the research was to separate the distant metastasis DM enhancing effect due to breast tumour removal from that due to surgical manoeuvre by itself. DM dynamics following surgery for ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence IBTRcontralateral breast cancer CBC and delayed reconstruction RECwhich was performed after the original breast cancer surgical removal, was analysed. The role of breast tumour removal is different from the role of surgery by itself.
Metastatic breast cancer also called stage IV is breast cancer that has spread to another part of the body, most commonly the liver, brain, bones, or lungs. Cancer cells can break away from the original tumor in the breast and travel to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system, which is a large network of nodes and vessels that works to remove bacteria, viruses, and cellular waste products. Breast cancer can come back in another part of the body months or years after the original diagnosis and treatment.
Metastatic breast canceralso referred to as metastasesadvanced breast cancer, secondary tumours, secondaries or stage 4 breast cancer, is a stage of breast cancer where the disease has spread to distant sites beyond the axillary lymph nodes. There is no cure for metastatic breast cancer. There is no stage after IV.
Breast cancer metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths from breast cancer. Detection of breast cancer metastasis at the earliest stage is important for the management and prediction of breast cancer progression. Emerging techniques using the analysis of circulating tumor cells show promising results in predicting and identifying the early stages of breast cancer metastasis in patients. Additionally, a deeper understanding of the metastatic cascade in breast cancer will be critical for developing therapeutic interventions to combat breast cancer metastasis.